Question: Will the original twelve apostles judge the twelve tribes of Israel?
Answer: The Twelve Apostles will judge the whole House of Israel. President John Taylor wrote:
“We may here state that Christ is called the judge of the quick and the dead, the judge of all the earth. We further read that the Twelve Apostles who ministered in Jerusalem ‘shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’ (Matthew 19:28.) Also the following: [D&C 29:12 and 1 Nephi 12:8–10].
“This exhibits a principle of adjudication or judgment in the hands, firstly, of the Great High Priest and King, Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of God; secondly, in the hands of the Twelve Apostles on the continent of Asia, bestowed by Jesus Himself; thirdly, in the Twelve Disciples on this continent, to their peoples, who it appears are under the presidency of the Twelve Apostles who ministered at Jerusalem; which presidency is also exhibited by Peter, James and John, the acknowledged presidency of the Twelve Apostles; they, holding this Priesthood first on the earth, and then in the heavens, being the legitimate custodians of the keys of the Priesthood, came and bestowed it upon Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery...” (The Mediation and Atonement, pp. 155–57.)
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27 Then answered Peter ( Peter asked a question) and said unto him, Behold, we have forsaken all, and followed thee; what shall we have therefore (what will our reward be)?
28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily (listen very carefully; this is an important point) I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration (JST resurrection) when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory (exaltation), ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones (you, too, will be exalted), judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
29 And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name’s sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life (exaltation).
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Apostle Bruce R. McConkie:
Christ is the greatest judge of all the earth. “The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son.” (John 5:22). In due course, every living soul shall stand before his judgement bar, be judged according to his own words, and awarded a place in the mansions that are prepared.
Under Christ, a great hierarchy of judges will operate, each functioning in his assigned sphere. John saw many judges sitting upon thrones...And the Twelve who served with our Lord in his ministry shall judge the whole house of Israel (D&C 29:12).
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Source: Come, Follow Me–For Individuals and Families, p. 74; The New Testament Made Easier, Part 1, Volume 2, by David J. Ridges, 58-59; Teachings of Presidents of the Church: John Taylor, “The Mediation and Atonement;” “Apostles to Judge House of Israel,” by Apostle Bruce R. McConkie, Doctrinal New Testament Commentary, Vol. 1, p. 558-559.